In association with

  • Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire Clinical Commissioning Group Research and Evidence Team
  • West of England Academic Health Science Network
  • NIHR CLAHRC West

Glossary

l

Likelihood ratio

The likelihood that a given test-result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder, compared to the likelihood that the same result would be expected in a patient without that disorder. For a positive test result = LR+ = sensitivity/(1-specificity) For a negative test result = LR- = (1-sensitivity)/specificity.

Literature searches

A literature search is a well-thought-out and organised search for all of the literature published on a topic. A well-structured literature search is the most effective and efficient way to locate sound evidence on the subject you are researching.

Local and current random census

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood.
Current: Occurring in or belonging to the present time
Random sample: A sample that is arrived at by selecting sample units such that each possible unit has a fixed and determinate probability of selection
Census: An enumeration of a population, originally intended for purposes of taxation and military service. Census enumeration of a population of a population usually records identities of all persons in every place of residence, with age, or birth date, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, and relationship to head of household – in addition to information on the dwelling place.

Local and current random sample survey

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood
Current: Occurring in or belonging to the present time
Random sample: A sample that is arrived at by selecting sample units such that each possible unit has a fixed and determinate probability of selection.
Survey: An investigation in which information is systematically collected but in which the experimental method is not used.

Local non-random sample

Local: Of, belonging to, or characteristic of a particular locality or neighbourhood
Non-random sample: A sample selected by a non-random method, and as a result, some elements of the population have no chance of selection. For example, a scheme whereby units are selected purposively would yield a non-random sample. Again, a sample obtained by taking members at fixed intervals on a list is a non-random sample, unless the list was arranged in a random order.